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by Tam

3. Requirements for the design bases, foundations and underground parts of tall buildings 3.1. For tall buildings, characterized by large and uneven loads on the foundation and base, should provide Use the following foundations: slab foundations increased rigidity (including box-shaped with well-developed underground parts of buildings) in a natural or fortified the base, pile foundations (Preferably in the form of deep supports); combined, including pile-slab and plate-anchor foundations. 3.2. Source: Pete Cashmore. When designing high-rise buildings is preferable to use options for layout and architectural and planning solutions that provide favorable interaction with the base of the building, including: a device underground floors that improve the rigidity of fixing the building at the base and change in the favorable attitude of the stress-strain state of soil at the base, resulting in a decrease in sediment and also rolls facilities. Decision on the use of underground space should be take in view of geotechnical factors on the basis of techno-economic analysis device around the altitude of the building above ground stylobate buildings or buildings with a variable number of storeys, which increases structures in general, the device of dividing walls, dug into malodeformiruemye base layers to minimize the impact of the construction of high rise buildings on the surrounding buildings, the unit bearing walls and diaphragms stiffness of the underground floors, use of architectural and planning schemes that do not cause significant constructive load eccentricity and irregularity of the sediment. 3.3. Design selection basement on the basis of technical and economic comparison of options under 'Project' and is determined by design-planning scheme of the building, the nature of soil strata, their physical and mechanical characteristics, load of the building at the base, the interaction of a building under construction with an array of ground and with the surrounding development, organization and technology features of the building.

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December 14th


The Limits
by Tam

The terms of reference for engineering and geological surveys, compiled in accordance with the requirements of snip 2.11, you must specify the design characteristics of the object, its geotechnical category (in accordance with Section 1.4 category 3), as well as lead, on the one hand, the characterization of the expected impacts of the construction on the environment, indicating the limits of these impacts in space and time, and on the other side – effects of the environment at the facility in accordance with the requirements of snip 1.22. Terms of Reference, approved by the customer, shall be prepared organization, projecting base, foundations and underground parts of the building and agree on the organization, performing engineering surveys. 2.6. The program of geotechnical surveys should be compiled with the participation of specialized organizations geotechnics.

This should take into account the geotechnical features of high-rise buildings, as set out in Appendix A. The program of geotechnical research on the construction site should include penetration following wells: exploration with the distance between them is not more than 50 m and at least two on opposite corners of the selected site; geotechnical in an amount not less than five: at the corners and center of the dimensions of height of the building in terms of the distance between them is not greater than 20 m. The number of exploration and geotechnical boreholes, the distance between them is within the height of the buildings, and within the rest area building assigned according to knowledge and the complexity of the geological site conditions, taking into account the size and purpose of the building.

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December 1st


Plastic Tubing
by Tam

The history of plastic piping is more than sixty years. For Russia, which continues to remain a country with an incredibly worn engineering network, everything connected with the operation of pipes made of nonmetallic materials, still a novelty. Among other things, interest in them grows. According to market laws demand creates supply, but the consumer who is not accustomed too long to choose, easy to understand the resulting abundance of pipes. As said trumpet pipe discord, not the exception, and plastic. Take into account the price, durability, complexity of installation and reliability of future pipeline – no easy task.

Long can not think and rely on the old time-tested steel pipe with the development of installation, robustness and high temperature resistance – the range of such products is quite wide. Today the Russian market offers several types of non-metallic pipes materials: polypropylene, polyethylene pipes for sale (option – cross-linked polyethylene), metal and plastic pvc pipe. Polypropylene and metal pipes are most prevalent in recent years. Metal pipes pvc (metal-pipe) is a three-layer structure. The main pipe is made of modified polyethylene with closed spatial molecular structure (XLPE), high bandwidth, excellent hygienic properties, good heat resistance. The thickness of the layer of aluminum foil – 0,2-0,5 mm. Protective plastic shell helps Resistance to internal pressure and high mechanical strength.

Allowed to bend without supporting spring radius of three to five diameters, and an even smaller spring, so the pipe is easy to install. Developed two basic types of connections – Collet and compaction. There is a trend to lower prices as supply has grown steadily, and the market of these pipes is very dynamic. The main disadvantage is that the range of line diameters ranges from 16 to 40 mm – on the production of this technology is becoming uneconomical. The connection of metal pipes – the most reliable forging a connection that allows for open and hidden strip (in Stroebe or inaccessible cavities). In addition to the high cost of connection of metal pipes, which requires expensive equipment (the press-pliers and crimp press), involves binding to certain metallic connectors, pipes (metal-press fittings) and a concrete pipe. Steel pipes mount technology is very similar to push-in connection, which has some of the nuances. For example, the weakening of the connection occurs result of thermal strains in the pipe – after the first year of operation, it becomes necessary to broach the pipeline. Not so terrible, if connections are available, because it can be compensated by using a collector wiring and a minimum number of connections. In this arrangement, the reliability of the pipeline increases, and the flow tubes increases. Pressing connections are optimal in heating systems with antifreeze, having increased fluidity. Metal-working pressure (one of the most powerful thermal properties of plastic pipe) is 10 atm, the maximum short-term operating temperature for several hours at 110 C, and maximum long-term – 95 C. Metal-pipes have a fairly broad scope – heated floors, central heating, hot and cold water.

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December 17th


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